This weekend it’s Halloween – or the pagan festival of Samhain, depending on your preference. Here in Glastonbury it’s mostly the latter, and under normal circumstances it’s marked in a big way. For this small town, it’s not just about trick or treat, or carved pumpkins. The Samhain procession is one of the main events of the year, with dragons (dramatic), drummers (noisy) and Border Morris dancers (downright scary). Never mind the mass-produced fancy dress costumes of skeletons, ghosts and monsters – here it’s just as likely to be swathes of black and green velvet, horned headdresses, and real witches’ hats. Yes, it’s fun, but it’s also at least in part about serious beliefs.
The old Celtic festival of Samhain (pronounced something like ‘Sow-en’ – sow as in female pig, rather than sow as in seeds) was characterised by feasting – the beasts which would not make it through the winter were slaughtered, and the harvest was in, so this was a time of plenty. The spectre of death loomed, though – this was both the end of summer and the beginning of winter, with the leaves dying and the prospect of cold, hungry months ahead. Many of those who feasted at Samhain would not make it through to feast again at Beltane, on the other side of the wheel of the year.
With the arrival of Christianity, 1 November became the feast of All Saints – All Hallows – where all the holy who had died were commemorated. Until the Reformation, people were encouraged to pray for the souls of the dead, and especially their dead ancestors. In much of Europe, this remains the time when families visit the graves of their loved ones to leave flowers. Church services are held to remember those who have died. It’s not clear whether the Celtic festival had these connotations of communing with the dead too, but certainly modern pagans speak of this being a time when the veil between the material world and the world of the spirits is at its thinnest, and it is possible to move between the two. This links to folklore around Halloween (All Hallows’ Eve, the evening before the festival) when this is the night for ghostly apparitions, when the dead, witches and other supernatural beings walk abroad. And whilst many people, quite understandably, deplore the recent advent of ‘trick or treat’, with its element of threat and licence to misbehave, the history of going from house to house, often in costume, begging for food and playing pranks dates back at least a couple of hundred years in the British Isles. In some areas it even has the name ‘Mischief Night’. Carved pumpkin lanterns may be a recent import from across the Atlantic too, but in various parts of the country – and especially here in Somerset – turnips or mangel wurzels were hollowed out and made into lanterns, the carved faces said to represent the dead and intended to frighten.
Samhain in Glastonbury will be a rather tame affair this year – the rules preventing large groups gathering, intended to limit the spread of Covid 19, mean that no processions will take place. The dark-clad Border Morris dancers will not leap, roar and whoop, whacking their sticks and running into the crowd. The red and white dragons will not weave their way up the High Street, accompanied by drum beats as loud as fire-crackers. The revellers, many of them robed, cloaked, masked or sporting headdresses with horns or greenery, will not process behind them, calling out to the spectators and encouraging them to join in. The many visitors from all over the world who usually come to Glastonbury to celebrate Samhain will not be here, kept away by travel restrictions and quarantine regulations.
Death had become remote and sanitised in Western society, and the yearly round of festivals – Christmas, Valentine’s Day, Mothers’ Day, Easter and so on – resolutely upbeat, with no acknowledgement of a corresponding darker side to life. This year, the pandemic has meant that death has become part of public life again. Perhaps this year, more than ever, we need to use this festival to come to terms with fear and death, and shake a defiant fist in the face of approaching winter and darkness.
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